Landfills were the most common method used for the Controlled Waste Management. And they continue to be so in many areas of the planet. Landfills are essential structures that prevent not only contamination of the soil but also have an extended life. In industrial reservoirs, TenCate geotextiles protect geomembranes against mechanical damage. An economical and environmentally advantageous solution to separate, treat and recycle waste.
GEOTUBE® - Sludge Dewatering
Geotube® dewatering technology is an effective way for managing waste from animal feeding operations. It works for lagoon cleanout and closure, and manages nutrients very effectively (over 90% phosphorous and heavy metal removal; 50% or greater nitrogen reduction). It also controls odor and produces irrigation quality effluent water.
In a country with severe rules and legislations as the USA, Geotube® dewatering technology is designated as a Practice Standard. In many cases it is possible to set up a Geotube® dewatering system inline, so you prevent solids from entering a lagoon.
You store water for irrigation, not waste you have to deal with later. The system doesn’t interrupt other operations.
Pulp and Paper
Geotube® dewatering technology is used for several applications within pulp and paper mills, including:
– Primary and secondary lagoon cleanout;
– Fly ash and alum sludge;
– Contaminated sediments;
– Continuous systems clarifier, sentrate, process waste stream;
– Process rejects;
– Separation dikes
– Emergency uses, such as cleanouts, spills, dumps, or exceeding discharge limits.
The rapidity with which a Geotube® dewatering operation can be set up, as well as the low investment involved have also been advantages in paper mill applications, particularly in emergency situations where mills ran the risk of having to shut down.
Mining and Mineral Processing
Mine tailings, coal sludge, and other materials can be managed and handled cost-effectively with Geotube® dewatering technology.
Because Geotube® containers can be custom-sized to the application, they can be placed in available space between other structures, and removed once dewatering is complete. Geotube® dewatering technology is a costeffective alternative to mechanical processes. It reduces disposal cost by consolidating higher solids with very little maintenance.
Effluent can be pumped directly from the process; or if a clarifier/thickener is used, effluent from the underflow can be diverted through the Geotube® container, eliminating the requirement for an expensive mechanical dewatering device. Geotube® units can be used to capture fines, silts, and clays from the tailings effluent prior to discharge into the ponds or directly into streams. Geotube® units will separate and dewater the fines and allow disposal without expensive dredging and transporting operations. In some cases, conditioners or polymers are used to promote flocculation to improve solids retention and filtrate quality.
Geotube® containers can also be used to utilize the fines to build dikes and containment berms.
Environmental Remediation - Effective Containment for Large and Small-Scale Projects
Rivers, bays, harbors, marinas, ports, and dock facilities have been collecting contaminated sediments from industrial runoff for many years. In many cases, these sediments pose significant environmental hazards, and remediation is a difficult and expensive task.
Marine sediments can be contained and dewatered easily with the Geotube® dewatering technology.
This can be accomplished at or very near the site by utilizing a dewatering basin where Geotube® containers can be stacked several layers high to minimize the space needed.
Geotube® units can be sized for large-scale or smaller applications, and effectively contain even hazardous materials, reducing their volume dramatically and saving thousands in disposal costs.
Water and Wastewater Treatment
A common problem at small Sewage Treatment Works, where sludge is dried on drying beds, is that the limited capacity of the beds can easily be exceeded. This could be due, for example, to an increase in sludge quantity resulting from an increasing population.
The Geotube® system is increasingly being used as a means of both simplifying the sludge dewatering process and effectively increasing the volume of the drying beds. Whereas in the past the drying beds had to be emptied at regular intervals, the time for a complete fill of the Geotube® can be increased to several months.
A significant saving can therefore be made in terms of handling and transportation.
After the sludge has been treated with a flocculant it is pumped into the Geotube® where the sediments remain and the water seeps through the pores of the tube. This process can be repeated over and over again until the Geotube® reaches its maximum level.
Larger Wastewater Treatment plants can also use the Geotube® system for sludge containment and dewatering as an alternative to belt-presses and/or centrifuges. It can also be used as an emergency kit if the available dewatering units are out of order.
Composting is the conversion of organic wastes into high-quality humus. Through systematic controls these materials can be returned to the earth, completing the cycles of nature and improving the soil to which it is applied.
The Controlled Microbial Composting (CMC) method helps to restore the fertility and buffering capacity of agricultural soils.
To achieve this goal, strict guidelines and controls must be followed. This includes the proper selection of the feedstocks, regular turning of the piles for aeration, and proper guidance of the decomposition process.
Therefore, several parameters such as temperature, oxygen levels, CO levels, pH value, sulfide, itrite, nitrate, and ammonium must be continuously monitored, and if necessary adjusted.
Compost Protection Fleece TopTex® is an important tool for optimal composting, because:
– TopTex® maintains optimal moisture conditions;
– TopTex® diverts rainfall away from the surface and protects from drying by sun and wind;
– TopTex® ensures proper aerobic decomposition;
– TopTex® allows the necessary gas exchange and ensures more optimal temperatures throughout the outer layers of the piles;
– TopTex® minimizes leachate and nutrient losses;
– TopTex® diverts rainfall away from the windrows and therefore minimizes the incidence of leachate.
TopTex® - Wood Chip Protection Agrotextile
In order to gain an optimum energy yield from wood chip, its moisture content must be limited to a minimum.
In the absence of effective covering, this can only be achieved by storing it under a cost expensive structured roof.
– Toptex® drains off rain water along its surface, the wood chip remains dry!
– O Toptex® is respirating, so the wood chip dries off! Moist air created by the warming-up of the chip pile can easily penetrate through the fabric.
Toptex® makes a storage outsider possible. The construction of expensive halls or roofs are no longer necessary.
The benefits of covering wood chip with Toptex® protection fabric are:
– Allows respiration;
– Sheds rain water;
– Wind proof;
– Easily handled;
– Visually attractive;
TopTex® - Straw and Hay Bales and Grain Protection
Toptex Protection Fabric protects straw bales reliably against wind and rain, providing effective respiration. The high quality of the straw is preserved throughout the whole winter season, drying-off after heavy rainfall, and the development of mould is avoided.
The benefits of Toptex® for Straw and Hay Bales Protection are:
– permeable to air and vapour (avoids mould development);
– water shedding (drains off water at slope angles >45°);
– resistant to wind lifting;
– the straw dries off even after heavy rainfall;
– high tensile strength and tear resistance (withstands even strong winds);
– UV stable (life-time minimum 3 years).